BALLOT OR THE BULLET
APRIL 12 1964
Mr. Moderator, Brother Lomax, brothers and sisters, friends and enemies: I just can't
believe everyone in here is a friend, and I don't want to leave anybody out. The question tonight, as I understand it, is
"The Negro Revolt, and Where Do We Go From Here?" or What Next?" In my little humble way of understanding it, it points toward
either the ballot or the bullet.
Before we try and explain what is meant by the ballot or the bullet, I would like
to clarify something concerning myself. I'm still a Muslim; my religion is still Islam. That's my personal belief. Just as
Adam Clayton Powell is a Christian minister who heads the Abyssinian Baptist Church in New York, but at the same time takes
part in the political struggles to try and bring about rights to the black people in this country; and Dr. Martin Luther King
is a Christian minister down in Atlanta, Georgia, who heads another organization fighting for the civil rights of black people
in this country; and Reverend Galamison, I guess you've heard of him, is another Christian minister in New York who has been
deeply involved in the school boycotts to eliminate segregated education; well, I myself am a minister, not a Christian minister,
but a Muslim minister; and I believe in action on all fronts by whatever means necessary.
Although I'm still a Muslim, I'm not here tonight to discuss my religion. I'm not
here to try and change your religion. I'm not here to argue or discuss anything that we differ about, because it's time for
us to submerge our differences and realize that it is best for us to first see that we have the same problem, a common problem,
a problem that will make you catch hell whether you're a Baptist, or a Methodist, or a Muslim, or a nationalist. Whether you're
educated or illiterate, whether you live on the boulevard or in the alley, you're going to catch hell just like I am. We're
all in the same boat and we all are going to catch the same hell from the same man. He just happens to be a white man. All
of us have suffered here, in this country, political oppression at the hands of the white man, economic exploitation at the
hands of the white man, and social degradation at the hands of the white man.
Now in speaking like this, it doesn't mean that we're anti-white, but it does mean
we're anti-exploitation, we're anti-degradation, we're anti-oppression. And if the white man doesn't want us to be anti-him,
let him stop oppressing and exploiting and degrading us. Whether we are Christians or Muslims or nationalists or agnostics
or atheists, we must first learn to forget our differences. If we have differences, let us differ in the closet; when we come
out in front, let us not have anything to argue about until we get finished arguing with the man. If the late President Kennedy
could get together with Khrushchev and exchange some wheat, we certainly have more in common with each other than Kennedy
and Khrushchev had with each other.
If we don't do something real soon, I think you'll have to agree that we're going
to be forced either to use the ballot or the bullet. It's one or the other in 1964. It isn't that time is running out -- time
has run out!
1964 threatens to be the most explosive year America has ever witnessed. The most
explosive year. Why? It's also a political year. It's the year when all of the white politicians will be back in the so-called
Negro community jiving you and me for some votes. The year when all of the white political crooks will be right back in your
and my community with their false promises, building up our hopes for a letdown, with their trickery and their treachery,
with their false promises which they don't intend to keep. As they nourish these dissatisfactions, it can only lead to one
thing, an explosion; and now we have the type of black man on the scene in America today -- I'm sorry, Brother Lomax -- who
just doesn't intend to turn the other cheek any longer.
Don't let anybody tell you anything about the odds are against you. If they draft
you, they send you to Korea and make you face 800 million Chinese. If you can be brave over there, you can be brave right
here. These odds aren't as great as those odds. And if you fight here, you will at least know what you're fighting for.
I'm not a politician, not even a student of politics; in fact, I'm not a student
of much of anything. I'm not a Democrat. I'm not a Republican, and I don't even consider myself an American. If you and I
were Americans, there'd be no problem. Those Honkies that just got off the boat, they're already Americans; Polacks are already
Americans; the Italian refugees are already Americans. Everything that came out of Europe, every blue-eyed thing, is already
an American. And as long as you and I have been over here, we aren't Americans yet.
Well, I am one who doesn't believe in deluding myself. I'm not going to sit at your
table and watch you eat, with nothing on my plate, and call myself a diner. Sitting at the table doesn't make you a diner,
unless you eat some of what's on that plate. Being here in America doesn't make you an American. Being born here in America
doesn't make you an American. Why, if birth made you American, you wouldn't need any legislation; you wouldn't need any amendments
to the Constitution; you wouldn't be faced with civil-rights filibustering in Washington, D.C., right now. They don't have
to pass civil-rights legislation to make a Polack an American.
No, I'm not an American. I'm one of the 22 million black people who are the victims
of Americanism. One of the 22 million black people who are the victims of democracy, nothing but disguised hypocrisy. So,
I'm not standing here speaking to you as an American, or a patriot, or a flag-saluter, or a flag-waver -- no, not I. I'm speaking
as a victim of this American system. And I see America through the eyes of the victim. I don't see any American dream; I see
an American nightmare.
These 22 million victims are waking up. Their eyes are coming open. They're beginning
to see what they used to only look at. They're becoming politically mature. They are realizing that there are new political
trends from coast to coast. As they see these new political trends, it's possible for them to see that every time there's
an election the races are so close that they have to have a recount. They had to recount in Massachusetts to see who was going
to be governor, it was so close. It was the same way in Rhode Island, in Minnesota, and in many other parts of the country.
And the same with Kennedy and Nixon when they ran for president. It was so close they had to count all over again. Well, what
does this mean? It means that when white people are evenly divided, and black people have a bloc of votes of their own, it
is left up to them to determine who's going to sit in the White House and who's going to be in the dog house.
lt. was the black man's vote that put the present administration in Washington, D.C.
Your vote, your dumb vote, your ignorant vote, your wasted vote put in an administration in Washington, D.C., that has seen
fit to pass every kind of legislation imaginable, saving you until last, then filibustering on top of that. And your and my
leaders have the audacity to run around clapping their hands and talk about how much progress we're making. And what a good
president we have. If he wasn't good in Texas, he sure can't be good in Washington, D.C. Because Texas is a lynch state. It
is in the same breath as Mississippi, no different; only they lynch you in Texas with a Texas accent and lynch you in Mississippi
with a Mississippi accent. And these Negro leaders have the audacity to go and have some coffee in the White House with a
Texan, a Southern cracker -- that's all he is -- and then come out and tell you and me that he's going to be better for us
because, since he's from the South, he knows how to deal with the Southerners. What kind of logic is that? Let Eastland be
president, he's from the South too. He should be better able to deal with them than Johnson.
In this present administration they have in the House of Representatives 257 Democrats
to only 177 Republicans. They control two-thirds of the House vote. Why can't they pass something that will help you and me?
In the Senate, there are 67 senators who are of the Democratic Party. Only 33 of them are Republicans. Why, the Democrats
have got the government sewed up, and you're the one who sewed it up for them. And what have they given you for it? Four years
in office, and just now getting around to some civil-rights legislation. Just now, after everything else is gone, out of the
way, they're going to sit down now and play with you all summer long -- the same old giant con game that they call filibuster.
All those are in cahoots together. Don't you ever think they're not in cahoots together, for the man that is heading the civil-rights
filibuster is a man from Georgia named Richard Russell. When Johnson became president, the first man he asked for when he
got back to Washington, D.C., was "Dicky" -- that's how tight they are. That's his boy, that's his pal, that's his buddy.
But they're playing that old con game. One of them makes believe he's for you, and he's got it fixed where the other one is
so tight against you, he never has to keep his promise.
So it's time in 1964 to wake up. And when you see them coming up with that kind of
conspiracy, let them know your eyes are open. And let them know you -- something else that's wide open too. It's got to be
the ballot or the bullet. The ballot or the bullet. If you're afraid to use an expression like that, you should get on out
of the country; you should get back in the cotton patch; you should get back in the alley. They get all the Negro vote, and
after they get it, the Negro gets nothing in return. All they did when they got to Washington was give a few big Negroes big
jobs. Those big Negroes didn't need big jobs, they already had jobs. That's camouflage, that's trickery, that's treachery,
window-dressing. I'm not trying to knock out the Democrats for the Republicans. We'll get to them in a minute. But it is true;
you put the Democrats first and the Democrats put you last.
Look at it the way it is. What alibis do they use, since they control Congress and
the Senate? What alibi do they use when you and I ask, "Well, when are you going to keep your promise?" They blame the Dixiecrats.
What is a Dixiecrat? A Democrat. A Dixiecrat is nothing but a Democrat in disguise. The titular head of the Democrats is also
the head of the Dixiecrats, because the Dixiecrats are a part of the Democratic Party. The Democrats have never kicked the
Dixiecrats out of the party. The Dixiecrats bolted themselves once, but the Democrats didn't put them out. Imagine, these
lowdown Southern segregationists put the Northern Democrats down. But the Northern Democrats have never put the Dixiecrats
down. No, look at that thing the way it is. They have got a con game going on, a political con game, and you and I are in
the middle. It's time for you and me to wake up and start looking at it like it is, and trying to understand it like it is;
and then we can deal with it like it is.
The Dixiecrats in Washington, D.C., control the key committees that run the government.
The only reason the Dixiecrats control these committees is because they have seniority. The only reason they have seniority
is because they come from states where Negroes can't vote. This is not even a government that's based on democracy. lt. is
not a government that is made up of representatives of the people. Half of the people in the South can't even vote. Eastland
is not even supposed to be in Washington. Half of the senators and congressmen who occupy these key positions in Washington,
D.C., are there illegally, are there unconstitutionally.
I was in Washington, D.C., a week ago Thursday, when they were debating whether or
not they should let the bill come onto the floor. And in the back of the room where the Senate meets, there's a huge map of
the United States, and on that map it shows the location of Negroes throughout the country. And it shows that the Southern
section of the country, the states that are most heavily concentrated with Negroes, are the ones that have senators and congressmen
standing up filibustering and doing all other kinds of trickery to keep the Negro from being able to vote. This is pitiful.
But it's not pitiful for us any longer; it's actually pitiful for the white man, because soon now, as the Negro awakens a
little more and sees the vise that he's in, sees the bag that he's in, sees the real game that he's in, then the Negro's going
to develop a new tactic.
These senators and congressmen actually violate the constitutional amendments that
guarantee the people of that particular state or county the right to vote. And the Constitution itself has within it the machinery
to expel any representative from a state where the voting rights of the people are violated. You don't even need new legislation.
Any person in Congress right now, who is there from a state or a district where the voting rights of the people are violated,
that particular person should be expelled from Congress. And when you expel him, you've removed one of the obstacles in the
path of any real meaningful legislation in this country. In fact, when you expel them, you don't need new legislation, because
they will be replaced by black representatives from counties and districts where the black man is in the majority, not in
If the black man in these Southern states had his full voting rights, the key Dixiecrats
in Washington, D. C., which means the key Democrats in Washington, D.C., would lose their seats. The Democratic Party itself
would lose its power. It would cease to be powerful as a party. When you see the amount of power that would be lost by the
Democratic Party if it were to lose the Dixiecrat wing, or branch, or element, you can see where it's against the interests
of the Democrats to give voting rights to Negroes in states where the Democrats have been in complete power and authority
ever since the Civil War. You just can't belong to that Party without analyzing it.
I say again, I'm not anti-Democrat, I'm not anti-Republican, I'm not anti-anything.
I'm just questioning their sincerity, and some of the strategy that they've been using on our people by promising them promises
that they don't intend to keep. When you keep the Democrats in power, you're keeping the Dixiecrats in power. I doubt that
my good Brother Lomax will deny that. A vote for a Democrat is a vote for a Dixiecrat. That's why, in 1964, it's time now
for you and me to become more politically mature and realize what the ballot is for; what we're supposed to get when we cast
a ballot; and that if we don't cast a ballot, it's going to end up in a situation where we're going to have to cast a bullet.
It's either a ballot or a bullet.
In the North, they do it a different way. They have a system that's known as gerrymandering,
whatever that means. It means when Negroes become too heavily concentrated in a certain area, and begin to gain too much political
power, the white man comes along and changes the district lines. You may say, "Why do you keep saying white man?" Because
it's the white man who does it. I haven't ever seen any Negro changing any lines. They don't let him get near the line. It's
the white man who does this. And usually, it's the white man who grins at you the most, and pats you on the back, and is supposed
to be your friend. He may be friendly, but he's not your friend.
So, what I'm trying to impress upon you, in essence, is this: You and I in America
are faced not with a segregationist conspiracy, we're faced with a government conspiracy. Everyone who's filibustering is
a senator -- that's the government. Everyone who's finagling in Washington, D.C., is a congressman -- that's the government.
You don't have anybody putting blocks in your path but people who are a part of the government. The same government that you
go abroad to fight for and die for is the government that is in a conspiracy to deprive you of your voting rights, deprive
you of your economic opportunities, deprive you of decent housing, deprive you of decent education. You don't need to go to
the employer alone, it is the government itself, the government of America, that is responsible for the oppression and exploitation
and degradation of black people in this country. And you should drop it in their lap. This government has failed the Negro.
This so-called democracy has failed the Negro. And all these white liberals have definitely failed the Negro.
So, where do we go from here? First, we need some friends. We need some new allies.
The entire civil-rights struggle needs a new interpretation, a broader interpretation. We need to look at this civil-rights
thing from another angle -- from the inside as well as from the outside. To those of us whose philosophy is black nationalism,
the only way you can get involved in the civil-rights struggle is give it a new interpretation. That old interpretation excluded
us. It kept us out. So, we're giving a new interpretation to the civil-rights struggle, an interpretation that will enable
us to come into it, take part in it. And these handkerchief-heads who have been dillydallying and pussy footing and compromising
-- we don't intend to let them pussyfoot and dillydally and compromise any longer.
How can you thank a man for giving you what's already yours? How then can you thank
him for giving you only part of what's already yours? You haven't even made progress, if what's being given to you, you should
have had already. That's not progress. And I love my Brother Lomax, the way he pointed out we're right back where we were
in 1954. We're not even as far up as we were in 1954. We're behind where we were in 1954. There's more segregation now than
there was in 1954. There's more racial animosity, more racial hatred, more racial violence today in 1964, than there was in
1954. Where is the progress?
And now you're facing a situation where the young Negro's coming up. They don't want
to hear that "turn the-other-cheek" stuff, no. In Jacksonville, those were teenagers, they were throwing Molotov cocktails.
Negroes have never done that before. But it shows you there's a new deal coming in. There's new thinking coming in. There's
new strategy coming in. It'll be Molotov cocktails this month, hand grenades next month, and something else next month. It'll
be ballots, or it'll be bullets. It'll be liberty, or it will be death. The only difference about this kind of death -- it'll
be reciprocal. You know what is meant by "reciprocal"? That's one of Brother Lomax's words. I stole it from him. I don't
usually deal with those big words because I don't usually deal with big people. I deal with small people. I find you can get
a whole lot of small people and whip hell out of a whole lot of big people. They haven't got anything to lose, and they've
got every thing to gain. And they'll let you know in a minute: "It takes two to tango; when I go, you go."
The black nationalists, those whose philosophy is black nationalism, in bringing
about this new interpretation of the entire meaning of civil rights, look upon it as meaning, as Brother Lomax has pointed
out, equality of opportunity. Well, we're justified in seeking civil rights, if it means equality of opportunity, because
all we're doing there is trying to collect for our investment. Our mothers and fathers invested sweat and blood. Three hundred
and ten years we worked in this country without a dime in return -- I mean without a dime in return. You let the white man
walk around here talking about how rich this country is, but you never stop to think how it got rich so quick. It got rich
because you made it rich.
You take the people who are in this audience right now. They're poor. We're all poor
as individuals. Our weekly salary individually amounts to hardly anything. But if you take the salary of everyone in here
collectively, it'll fill up a whole lot of baskets. It's a lot of wealth. If you can collect the wages of just these people
right here for a year, you'll be rich -- richer than rich. When you look at it like that, think how rich Uncle Sam had to
become, not with this handful, but millions of black people. Your and my mother and father, who didn't work an eight-hour
shift, but worked from "can't see" in the morning until "can't see" at night, and worked for nothing, making the white man
rich, making Uncle Sam rich. This is our investment. This is our contribution, our blood.
Not only did we give of our free labor, we gave of our blood. Every time he had a
call to arms, we were the first ones in uniform. We died on every battlefield the white man had. We have made a greater sacrifice
than anybody who's standing up in America today. We have made a greater contribution and have collected less. Civil rights,
for those of us whose philosophy is black nationalism, means: "Give it to us now. Don't wait for next year. Give it to us
yesterday, and that's not fast enough."
I might stop right here to point out one thing. Whenever you're going after something
that belongs to you, anyone who's depriving you of the right to have it is a criminal. Understand that. Whenever you are going
after something that is yours, you are within your legal rights to lay claim to it. And anyone who puts forth any effort to
deprive you of that which is yours, is breaking the law, is a criminal. And this was pointed out by the Supreme Court decision.
It outlawed segregation.
Which means segregation is against the law. Which means a segregationist is breaking
the law. A segregationist is a criminal. You can't label him as anything other than that. And when you demonstrate against
segregation, the law is on your side. The Supreme Court is on your side.
Now, who is it that opposes you in carrying out the law? The police department itself.
With police dogs and clubs. Whenever you demonstrate against segregation, whether it is segregated education, segregated housing,
or anything else, the law is on your side, and anyone who stands in the way is not the law any longer. They are breaking the
law; they are not representatives of the law. Any time you demonstrate against segregation and a man has the audacity to put
a police dog on you, kill that dog, kill him, I'm telling you, kill that dog. I say it, if they put me in jail tomorrow, kill
that dog. Then you'll put a stop to it. Now, if these white people in here don't want to see that kind of action, get down
and tell the mayor to tell the police department to pull the dogs in. That's all you have to do. If you don't do it, someone
If you don't take this kind of stand, your little children will grow up and look
at you and think "shame." If you don't take an uncompromising stand, I don't mean go out and get violent; but at the same
time you should never be nonviolent unless you run into some nonviolence. I'm nonviolent with those who are nonviolent with
me. But when you drop that violence on me, then you've made me go insane, and I'm not responsible for what I do. And that's
the way every Negro should get. Any time you know you're within the law, within your legal rights, within your moral rights,
in accord with justice, then die for what you believe in. But don't die alone. Let your dying be reciprocal. This is what
is meant by equality. What's good for the goose is good for the gander.
When we begin to get in this area, we need new friends, we need new allies. We need
to expand the civil-rights struggle to a higher level -- to the level of human rights. Whenever you are in a civil-rights
struggle, whether you know it or not, you are confining yourself to the jurisdiction of Uncle Sam. No one from the outside
world can speak out in your behalf as long as your struggle is a civil-rights struggle. Civil rights comes within the domestic
affairs of this country. All of our African brothers and our Asian brothers and our Latin-American brothers cannot open their
mouths and interfere in the domestic affairs of the United States. And as long as it's civil rights, this comes under the
jurisdiction of Uncle Sam.
But the United Nations has what's known as the charter of human rights; it has a
committee that deals in human rights. You may wonder why all of the atrocities that have been committed in Africa and in Hungary
and in Asia, and in Latin America are brought before the UN, and the Negro problem is never brought before the UN. This is
part of the conspiracy. This old, tricky blue eyed liberal who is supposed to be your and my friend, supposed to be in our
corner, supposed to be subsidizing our struggle, and supposed to be acting in the capacity of an adviser, never tells you
anything about human rights. They keep you wrapped up in civil rights. And you spend so much time barking up the civil-rights
tree, you don't even know there's a human-rights tree on the same floor.
When you expand the civil-rights struggle to the level of human rights, you can then
take the case of the black man in this country before the nations in the UN. You can take it before the General Assembly.
You can take Uncle Sam before a world court. But the only level you can do it on is the level of human rights. Civil rights
keeps you under his restrictions, under his jurisdiction. Civil rights keeps you in his pocket. Civil rights means you're
asking Uncle Sam to treat you right. Human rights are something you were born with. Human rights are your God-given rights.
Human rights are the rights that are recognized by all nations of this earth. And any time any one violates your human rights,
you can take them to the world court.
Uncle Sam's hands are dripping with blood, dripping with the blood of the black man
in this country. He's the earth's number-one hypocrite. He has the audacity -- yes, he has -- imagine him posing as the leader
of the free world. The free world! And you over here singing "We Shall Overcome." Expand the civil-rights struggle to the
level of human rights. Take it into the United Nations, where our African brothers can throw their weight on our side, where
our Asian brothers can throw their weight on our side, where our Latin-American brothers can throw their weight on our side,
and where 800 million Chinamen are sitting there waiting to throw their weight on our side.
Let the world know how bloody his hands are. Let the world know the hypocrisy that's
practiced over here. Let it be the ballot or the bullet. Let him know that it must be the ballot or the bullet.
When you take your case to Washington, D.C., you're taking it to the criminal who's
responsible; it's like running from the wolf to the fox. They're all in cahoots together. They all work political chicanery
and make you look like a chump before the eyes of the world. Here you are walking around in America, getting ready to be drafted
and sent abroad, like a tin soldier, and when you get over there, people ask you what are you fighting for, and you have to
stick your tongue in your cheek. No, take Uncle Sam to court, take him before the world.
By ballot I only mean freedom. Don't you know -- I disagree with Lomax on this issue
-- that the ballot is more important than the dollar? Can I prove it? Yes. Look in the UN. There are poor nations in the UN;
yet those poor nations can get together with their voting power and keep the rich nations from making a move. They have one
nation -- one vote, everyone has an equal vote. And when those brothers from Asia, and Africa and the darker parts of this
earth get together, their voting power is sufficient to hold Sam in check. Or Russia in check. Or some other section of the
earth in check. So, the ballot is most important.
Right now, in this country, if you and I, 22 million African-Americans -- that's
what we are -- Africans who are in America. You're nothing but Africans. Nothing but Africans. In fact, you'd get farther
calling yourself African instead of Negro. Africans don't catch hell. You're the only one catching hell. They don't have to
pass civil-rights bills for Africans. An African can go anywhere he wants right now. All you've got to do is tie your head
up. That's right, go anywhere you want. Just stop being a Negro. Change your name to Hoogagagooba. That'll show you how silly
the white man is. You're dealing with a silly man. A friend of mine who's very dark put a turban on his head and went into
a restaurant in Atlanta before they called themselves desegregated. He went into a white restaurant, he sat down, they served
him, and he said, "What would happen if a Negro came in here? And there he's sitting, black as night, but because he had his
head wrapped up the waitress looked back at him and says, "Why, there wouldn't no nigger dare come in here."
So, you're dealing with a man whose bias and prejudice are making him lose his mind,
his intelligence, every day. He's frightened. He looks around and sees what's taking place on this earth, and he sees that
the pendulum of time is swinging in your direction. The dark people are waking up. They're losing their fear of the white
man. No place where he's fighting right now is he winning. Everywhere he's fighting, he's fighting someone your and my complexion.
And they're beating him. He can't win any more. He's won his last battle. He failed to win the Korean War. He couldn't win
it. He had to sign a truce. That's a loss.
Any time Uncle Sam, with all his machinery for warfare, is held to a draw by some
rice eaters, he's lost the battle. He had to sign a truce. America's not supposed to sign a truce. She's supposed to be bad.
But she's not bad any more. She's bad as long as she can use her hydrogen bomb, but she can't use hers for fear Russia might
use hers. Russia can't use hers, for fear that Sam might use his. So, both of them are weapon-less. They can't use the weapon
because each's weapon nullifies the other's. So the only place where action can take place is on the ground. And the white
man can't win another war fighting on the ground. Those days are over The black man knows it, the brown man knows it, the
red man knows it, and the yellow man knows it. So they engage him in guerrilla warfare. That's not his style. You've got to
have heart to be a guerrilla warrior, and he hasn't got any heart. I'm telling you now.
I just want to give you a little briefing on guerrilla warfare because, before you
know it, before you know it. It takes heart to be a guerrilla warrior because you're on your own. In conventional warfare
you have tanks and a whole lot of other people with you to back you up -- planes over your head and all that kind of stuff.
But a guerrilla is on his own. All you have is a rifle, some sneakers and a bowl of rice, and that's all you need -- and a
lot of heart. The Japanese on some of those islands in the Pacific, when the American soldiers landed, one Japanese sometimes
could hold the whole army off. He'd just wait until the sun went down, and when the sun went down they were all equal. He
would take his little blade and slip from bush to bush, and from American to American. The white soldiers couldn't cope with
that. Whenever you see a white soldier that fought in the Pacific, he has the shakes, he has a nervous condition, because
they scared him to death.
The same thing happened to the French up in French Indochina. People who just a few
years previously were rice farmers got together and ran the heavily-mechanized French army out of Indochina. You don't need
it -- modern warfare today won't work. This is the day of the guerrilla. They did the same thing in Algeria. Algerians, who
were nothing but Bedouins, took a rine and sneaked off to the hills, and de Gaulle and all of his highfalutin' war machinery
couldn't defeat those guerrillas. Nowhere on this earth does the white man win in a guerrilla warfare. It's not his speed.
Just as guerrilla warfare is prevailing in Asia and in parts of Africa and in parts of Latin America, you've got to be mighty
naive, or you've got to play the black man cheap, if you don't think some day he's going to wake up and find that it's got
to be the ballot or the bullet.
l would like to say, in closing, a few things concerning the Muslim Mosque, Inc.,
which we established recently in New York City. It's true we're Muslims and our religion is Islam, but we don't mix our religion
with our politics and our economics and our social and civil activities -- not any more We keep our religion in our mosque.
After our religious services are over, then as Muslims we become involved in political action, economic action and social
and civic action. We become involved with anybody, any where, any time and in any manner that's designed to eliminate the
evils, the political, economic and social evils that are afflicting the people of our community.
The political philosophy of black nationalism means that the black man should control
the politics and the politicians in his own community; no more. The black man in the black community has to be re-educated
into the science of politics so he will know what politics is supposed to bring him in return. Don't be throwing out any ballots.
A ballot is like a bullet. You don't throw your ballots until you see a target, and if that target is not within your reach,
keep your ballot in your pocket.
The political philosophy of black nationalism is being taught in the Christian church.
It's being taught in the NAACP. It's being taught in CORE meetings. It's being taught in SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee meetings. It's being taught in Muslim meetings. It's being taught where nothing but atheists and agnostics come
together. It's being taught everywhere. Black people are fed up with the dillydallying, pussyfooting, compromising approach
that we've been using toward getting our freedom. We want freedom now, but we're not going to get it saying "We Shall Overcome."
We've got to fight until we overcome.
The economic philosophy of black nationalism is pure and simple. It only means that
we should control the economy of our community. Why should white people be running all the stores in our community? Why should
white people be running the banks of our community? Why should the economy of our community be in the hands of the white man?
Why? If a black man can't move his store into a white community, you tell me why a white man should move his store into a
black community. The philosophy of black nationalism involves a re-education program in the black community in regards to
economics. Our people have to be made to see that any time you take your dollar out of your community and spend it in a community
where you don't live, the community where you live will get poorer and poorer, and the community where you spend your money
will get richer and richer.
Then you wonder why where you live is always a ghetto or a slum area. And where you
and I are concerned, not only do we lose it when we spend it out of the community, but the white man has got all our stores
in the community tied up; so that though we spend it in the community, at sundown the man who runs the store takes it over
across town somewhere. He's got us in a vise.
So the economic philosophy of black nationalism means in every church, in every civic
organization, in every fraternal order, it's time now for our people to be come conscious of the importance of controlling
the economy of our community. If we own the stores, if we operate the businesses, if we try and establish some industry in
our own community, then we're developing to the position where we are creating employment for our own kind. Once you gain
control of the economy of your own community, then you don't have to picket and boycott and beg some cracker downtown for
a job in his business.
The social philosophy of black nationalism only means that we have to get together
and remove the evils, the vices, alcoholism, drug addiction, and other evils that are destroying the moral fiber of our community.
We our selves have to lift the level of our community, the standard of our community to a higher level, make our own society
beautiful so that we will be satisfied in our own social circles and won't be running around here trying to knock our way
into a social circle where we're not wanted. So I say, in spreading a gospel such as black nationalism, it is not designed
to make the black man re-evaluate the white man -- you know him already -- but to make the black man re-evaluate himself.
Don't change the white man's mind -- you can't change his mind, and that whole thing about appealing to the moral conscience
of America -- America's conscience is bankrupt. She lost all conscience a long time ago. Uncle Sam has no conscience.
They don't know what morals are. They don't try and eliminate an evil because it's
evil, or because it's illegal, or because it's immoral; they eliminate it only when it threatens their existence. So you're
wasting your time appealing to the moral conscience of a bankrupt man like Uncle Sam. If he had a conscience, he'd straighten
this thing out with no more pressure being put upon him. So it is not necessary to change the white man's mind. We have to
change our own mind. You can't change his mind about us. We've got to change our own minds about each other. We have to see
each other with new eyes. We have to see each other as brothers and sisters. We have to come together with warmth so we can
develop unity and harmony that's necessary to get this problem solved ourselves. How can we do this? How can we avoid jealousy?
How can we avoid the suspicion and the divisions that exist in the community? I'll tell you how.
I have watched how Billy Graham comes into a city, spreading what he calls the gospel
of Christ, which is only white nationalism. That's what he is. Billy Graham is a white nationalist; I'm a black nationalist.
But since it's the natural tendency for leaders to be jealous and look upon a powerful figure like Graham with suspicion and
envy, how is it possible for him to come into a city and get all the cooperation of the church leaders? Don't think because
they're church leaders that they don't have weaknesses that make them envious and jealous -- no, everybody's got it. It's
not an accident that when they want to choose a cardinal, as Pope I over there in Rome, they get in a closet so you can't
hear them cussing and fighting and carrying on.
Billy Graham comes in preaching the gospel of Christ. He evangelizes the gospel.
He stirs everybody up, but he never tries to start a church. If he came in trying to start a church, all the churches would
be against him. So, he just comes in talking about Christ and tells everybody who gets Christ to go to any church where Christ
is; and in this way the church cooperates with him. So we're going to take a page from his book.
Our gospel is black nationalism. We're not trying to threaten the existence of any
organization, but we're spreading the gospel of black nationalism. Anywhere there's a church that is also preaching and practicing
the gospel of black nationalism, join that church. If the NAACP is preaching and practicing the gospel of black nationalism,
join the NAACP. If CORE is spreading and practicing the gospel of black nationalism, join CORE. Join any organization that
has a gospel that's for the uplift of the black man. And when you get into it and see them pussyfooting or compromising, pull
out of it because that's not black nationalism. We'll find another one.
And in this manner, the organizations will increase in number and in quantity and
in quality, and by August, it is then our intention to have a black nationalist convention which will consist of delegates
from all over the country who are interested in the political, economic and social philosophy of black nationalism. After
these delegates convene, we will hold a seminar; we will hold discussions; we will listen to everyone. We want to hear new
ideas and new solutions and new answers. And at that time, if we see fit then to form a black nationalist party, we'll form
a black nationalist party. If it's necessary to form a black nationalist army, we'll form a black nationalist army. It'll
be the ballot or the bullet. It'll be liberty or it'll be death.
It's time for you and me to stop sitting in this country, letting some cracker senators,
Northern crackers and Southern crackers, sit there in Washington, D.C., and come to a conclusion in their mind that you and
I are supposed to have civil rights. There's no white man going to tell me anything about my rights. Brothers and sisters,
always remember, if it doesn't take senators and congressmen and presidential proclamations to give freedom to the white man,
it is not necessary for legislation or proclamation or Supreme Court decisions to give freedom to the black man. You let that
white man know, if this is a country of freedom, let it be a country of freedom; and if it's not a country of freedom, change
We will work with anybody, anywhere, at any time, who is genuinely interested in
tackling the problem head-on, nonviolently as long as the enemy is nonviolent, but violent when the enemy gets violent. We'll
work with you on the voter-registration drive, we'll work with you on rent strikes, we'll work with you on school boycotts;
I don't believe in any kind of integration; I'm not even worried about it, because I know you're not going to get it anyway;
you're not going to get it because you're afraid to die; you've got to be ready to die if you try and force yourself on the
white man, because he'll get just as violent as those crackers in Mississippi, right here in Cleveland. But we will still
work with you on the school boycotts be cause we're against a segregated school system. A segregated school system produces
children who, when they graduate, graduate with crippled minds. But this does not mean that a school is segregated because
it's all black. A segregated school means a school that is controlled by people who have no real interest in it whatsoever.
Let me explain what I mean. A segregated district or community is a community in
which people live, but outsiders control the politics and the economy of that community. They never refer to the white section
as a segregated community. It's the all-Negro section that's a segregated community. Why? The white man controls his own school,
his own bank, his own economy, his own politics, his own everything, his own community; but he also controls yours. When you're
under someone else's control, you're segregated. They'll always give you the lowest or the worst that there is to offer, but
it doesn't mean you're segregated just because you have your own. You've got to control your own. Just like the white man
has control of his, you need to control yours.
You know the best way to get rid of segregation? The white man is more afraid
of separation than he is of integration. Segregation means that he puts you away from him, but not far enough for you to be
out of his jurisdiction; separation means you're gone. And the white man will integrate faster than he'll let you separate.
So we will work with you against the segregated school system because it's criminal, because it is absolutely destructive,
in every way imaginable, to the minds of the children who have to be exposed to that type of crippling education.
Last but not least, I must say this concerning the great controversy over rifles
and shotguns. The only thing that I've ever said is that in areas where the government has proven itself either unwilling
or unable to defend the lives and the property of Negroes, it's time for Negroes to defend themselves. Article number two
of the constitutional amendments provides you and me the right to own a rifle or a shotgun. It is constitutionally legal to
own a shotgun or a rifle. This doesn't mean you're going to get a rifle and form battalions and go out looking for white folks,
although you'd be within your rights -- I mean, you'd be justified; but that would be illegal and we don't do anything illegal.
If the white man doesn't want the black man buying rifles and shotguns, then let the government do its job.
That's all. And don't let the white man come to you and ask you what you think about
what Malcolm says -- why, you old Uncle Tom. He would never ask you if he thought you were going to say, "Amen!" No, he is
making a Tom out of you." So, this doesn't mean forming rifle clubs and going out looking for people, but it is time,
in 1964, if you are a man, to let that man know.
If he's not going to do his job in running the government and providing you and me
with the protection that our taxes are supposed to be for, since he spends all those billions for his defense budget, he certainly
can't begrudge you and me spending $12 or $15 for a single-shot, or double-action. I hope you understand. Don't go out shooting
people, but any time -- brothers and sisters, and especially the men in this audience; some of you wearing Congressional Medals
of Honor, with shoulders this wide, chests this big, muscles that big -- any time you and I sit around and read where they
bomb a church and murder in cold blood, not some grownups, but four little girls while they were praying to the same God the
white man taught them to pray to, and you and I see the government go down and can't find who did it.
Why, this man -- he can find Eichmann hiding down in Argentina somewhere. Let two
or three American soldiers, who are minding somebody else's business way over in South Vietnam, get killed, and he'll send
battleships, sticking his nose in their business. He wanted to send troops down to Cuba and make them have what he calls free
elections -- this old cracker who doesn't have free elections in his own country.
No, if you never see me another time in your life, if I die in the morning, I'll
die saying one thing: the ballot or the bullet, the ballot or the bullet.
If a Negro in 1964 has to sit around and wait for some cracker senator to filibuster
when it comes to the rights of black people, why, you and I should hang our heads in shame. You talk about a march on Washington
in 1963, you haven't seen anything. There's some more going down in '64.
And this time they're not going like they went last year. They're not going singing
''We Shall Overcome." They're not going with white friends. They're not going with placards already painted for them. They're
not going with round-trip tickets. They're going with one way tickets. And if they don't want that non-nonviolent army going
down there, tell them to bring the filibuster to a halt.
The black nationalists aren't going to wait. Lyndon B. Johnson is the head of the
Democratic Party. If he's for civil rights, let him go into the Senate next week and declare himself. Let him go in there
right now and declare himself. Let him go in there and denounce the Southern branch of his party. Let him go in there right
now and take a moral stand -- right now, not later. Tell him, don't wait until election time. If he waits too long, brothers
and sisters, he will be responsible for letting a condition develop in this country which will create a climate that will
bring seeds up out of the ground with vegetation on the end of them looking like something these people never dreamed of.
In 1964, it's the ballot or the bullet.